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It served, as a rule, to indicate the name or initials of the paper maker. The method of engraving & printing maps from copper plates and used by engravers from the 16 century paper. One of the most decorative maps of Malta is Johann Baptista Homann’s Insularum Maltae et Gozae…, Nuremberg, 1720. An example of a dissected map is Brocktorff’s’s Map of Malta and its Dependencies, 1847. Where a map or a print has been coloured with a paint that had a corrosive content (often the colour green – also called verdigris). An edition consists of the impressions made from a distinct state of a plate. A printing process employing a metal plate on which has been scratched a design. Large folio maps would be about 45 to 55 cm, and imperial folio greater than about 55 cm. The convenience of having maps that fold into a small size has been obvious ever since maps became items that were sold to the general public.

Strange as it may seem paper type/quality changes quickly from one century to another but of course old stocks of paper from the former century were often used up in the new century until they were exhausted. When ink is applied to the plate, and the plate wiped, ink remains behind in the grooves. For those wanting to take a map with them when they travelled, these maps could be slipped into a saddle-bag, pocket or suitcase. An example of an inset map is the Villamena map of Valletta published in Bosio’s Dell’Istoria della Sacra Religione et Militia di San Giovanni Gierosolimitano, Parte Terza, in Rome, 1602 with an inset map of the Maltese islands within a decorative cartouche. All impressions printed at one time without alteration of the plate belong to the same issue.

Excessive bleaching gives the paper a ghostly white appearance that experienced collectors avoid. This refers to the printing area that goes beyond the edge of the sheet after trimming. In other cases the border may be scrollwork, geometrical designs, or even decorative panels with costumed figures or town views. Browning tends to occur at the centrefold because the paste used to hold the map in the atlas attacks the paper. The chain marks are the coarsely spaced lines running parallel to the short dimension of the original sheet. century printing process, which stemmed from the process of lithography, permitted the use of very bright colours and was important although short-lived when it was replaced by offset printing in the late 1930s. A collector’s mark is everything affixed to a print, drawing or map that indicates an ownership or provenance.

Some quite beautiful maps can be found printed by this method. Marks can be ink-stamped, blind-stamped, embossed or hand-written on the recto or verso of a work or art, or on the mount.

The name Atlas subsequently came to be applied to volumes of maps and information in this format. Sometimes a map is pasted or glued onto another material, such as cloth, to make the map more rugged and durable. A nautical chart is a graphic representation of a maritime area and adjacent coastal regions and is an essential tool for marine navigation. The straight, printed lines separating the body of a map from the map margin. A map from such a book is sometimes said to be octavo-sized. When the surface of a map contacts another surface for many years, as in an atlas, there may be a transfer of printer’s ink or colour, or a chemical reaction, which faintly reproduces a mirror image of the other surface. Sometimes the last user does not destroy the plate or block, and it is later used to make restrikes. Conventionally used of the publisher of a print, but can also be found referring to the man who more literally ‘made’ it, in the sense of creating the printing surface, where someone else is credited as the publisher. Used of the original artist whose image is being reproduced. [etc.] An unreliable term, which can refer either to the person who created the image on the stone or to the person who printed it from the stone. Occasionally used in the late nineteenth century of the craftsman or firm responsible for the complex task of creating a process plate or block. Used of the artist whose original painting the print reproduces. Official opening of a new map gallery or exhibition. The reverse or opposite side of the sheet from the image of interest. Watermarks are often helpful in identifying the age of the paper. These elements were most found in early maps of the sixteenth century. Anon " data-medium-file="https://maltamap.files.wordpress.com/2013/08/wormholes.jpg? w=278" data-large-file="https://maltamap.files.wordpress.com/2013/08/wormholes.jpg? w=440" class="alignnone size-medium wp-image-430" alt="wormholes" src="https://maltamap.files.wordpress.com/2013/08/wormholes.jpg? w=277&h=300" width="277" height="300" srcset="https://maltamap.files.wordpress.com/2013/08/wormholes.jpg? w=277&h=300 277w, https://maltamap.files.wordpress.com/2013/08/wormholes.jpg? w=554&h=598 554w, https://maltamap.files.wordpress.com/2013/08/wormholes.jpg? w=139&h=150 139w" sizes="(max-width: 277px) 100vw, 277px" / WOVE PAPER.

Many folding maps and many wall maps were backed with cloth when issued. An example is the van Keulen map depicting Sicily, the Barbary coast and the Maltese islands with an inset map of Valletta. Typically the vertical paper dimension of such a map is about 8 to 9 inches (20 to 23 cm). Offsetting can even occur from one part of a map to another if the map is folded on itself. f., fec., feet., fecit, fac., faciebat ‘made’ or ‘did’. It can be found on lithographs as well as on every type of intaglio print. for normal meaning; but also sometimes used in France on lithographs. Almost exclusively used of the rolling press and so an indication of an intaglio print; but see also imp. on stone by Used of the artist or craftsman who drew the image on the stone for a lithograph. If a draughts man is also credited (see del.), he will have copied the painting to provide the more portable image from which the print was actually made. An example is the map of the world by Battista Agnese (1514 – 64)and in Giovanni Miriti’s (1536-1590? Wove paper is paper which does not exhibit any wire marks such as laid paper.

Maps are sometimes backed for conservation purposes, usually with thin tissue. It is most often used where the originator of the image has also created the printing surface, but this is far from invariable. restituit to signify retouching or restoring the plate. If the paper is hand made, the mould is a woven wire mould, and if it is machine-made paper it is produced by means of a dandy-roll.

Archival quality adhesive and backing material should be employed to prevent chemical deterioration of the paper. As the organic material in paper ages, it undergoes a chemical transformation that causes the paper to darken. Can also be used of a specific task – for example aquatinta fecit, meaning ‘aquatinted’, where another craftsman is credited with etching the outline. Lafreri, for instance, uses this term sc., sculp., sculpsit, sculpt., sculpebat ‘carved’. Originally used for pure engravings, it was continued on line engravings which were usually more etched than engraved. Wove paper came into use around 1800, and is often watermarked with the maker’s name.

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Colouring generally greatly enhances the appearance of decorative maps, but not all maps were intended to be coloured. This can be difficult when dating a map, but then the printing styles change too so it is usually not too difficult to see what has happened. A dampened sheet of paper is laid onto the plate and under pressure the inked design is transferred. A printing process similar to engraving, except that the plate is produced by coating it with an acid resistant material upon which the design is scratched. Even those who stayed in one place found that the compact size and protective covers made folding maps a practical alternative to having maps in atlases. Notable examples are those inserted into the Illustrated London News and Gentlemen’s Magazine. Thus, if two impressions are different states, the plate has been altered and they cannot belong to the same issue. Part of the visible impression left by the wire grid used in the fabrication of laid paper. Handmade paper made by depositing cloth fibers suspended in water onto a wire grid. The plate is then immersed in acid to eat away at the scratched areas, creating the grooves to hold the ink for printing. Most folding maps were made by dissecting the printed map into several sections, which were then mounted onto linen or some other cloth, with a small gap between the sections so they could be folded together without wear. Small, usually brown, spots on the paper caused by mould. However, an unaltered plate might have been used several times over a period years. Where a map has been flattened to remove creases or surface defects’ KEY. The laid lines are the finely spaced lines running parallel to the long dimension of the original sheet. The grid leaves an impression on the paper, which may be seen when looking though the paper at a bright light. Maps which were coloured at the time when they were printed are said to have ORIGINAL COLOUR, OLD COLOUR, or CONTEMPORARY COLOUR. When maps are recently coloured, they are said to have LATER COLOUR or MODERN COLOUR. These are written descriptions found on the face or within the borders of a map that discuss aspects of geography, history, and politics of its subject. The points of the compass are: Oriens – the rising sun, the East; Occidens – the setting sun, the West; Meridies – the midday sun, the South. An atlas compiled, often to order, by a map seller from maps on hand. A folio book is bound from sheets of paper folded one time. A form of printing first used for maps early in the 19 century. A cataloguer’s term used to describe a map in which a portion of the printed area is missing.

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